COP 25 failed on climate ambition

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Jan 102020

“Repeated obstructions by key polluters led to many decisions being pushed to the next COP”

By Sneha Pandey (Published in The Kathmandu Post)

cop 25

The 25th Conference of Parties (COP25) ended this Sunday afternoon, more than 40 hours after it was originally intended to, without much to show in terms of climate progress. Almost 27,000 delegates from over 190 nations had convened in Madrid this month to finalise the Paris Rulebook—the manual that was supposed to guide the world on how to implement the objectives of the Paris Agreement when it comes into effect in 2020. Additionally, while there was no formal agenda to increase ambition, it was expected that nations would signal their intent to upgrade their 2020 Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) ambitions. COP25, however, failed to deliver on both fronts. Dubbed as a ‘disappointment’ by the UN Secretary-General António Guterres and an ‘opportunity for countries to negotiate loopholes’ by climate activist Greta Thunberg, COP25 was unable to give much momentum to the Paris Agreement.

Outcomes on Key Issues

Key issues that COP25 was expected to deliver on (which I have gone into more detail in my last article) included:

Mitigation: The UN’s 2019 Emission Gap Report launched around a week before the COP25 negotiations states that given the current greenhouse emissions trend, we are on track for 3 degree Celsius warming that would have devastating impacts on the fragile mountains, coastal ecosystems, communities and net global agricultural productivity. Even if the climate ambitions outlined in the current NDCs were to be met, according to the report, 2030 emissions will still be 38 percent higher than what is required to maintain temperature increase to 1.5 degree Celsius—the threshold, identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), required to avoid the most devastating impacts of climate change. Findings released from a global carbon budget study showed that emissions that need to go down by at least 7 percent annually for the next decade (to meet the 1.5 degrees goal) have actually risen up by 4 percent since the Paris Agreement was signed in 2015.

However, despite such alarming findings, World Resources Institute’s 2020 NDC Tracker shows that only 80 countries (including Nepal) have stated their intentions to upgrade the ambitions on their 2020 NDCs. Most of these countries are developing or small countries that are only responsible for 10.5 percent of the global emissions. Major polluters did not make any pledges about ratcheting mitigation ambitions during the negotiations. COP25 did, however, conclude with a formal recognition to bridge the emissions gap through ambitious NDCs next year.

Carbon Markets and Transparency: One of the mandates of this COP was to address and finalise outstanding implementation guidelines issues in the Paris Rulebook (most of which was completed in COP24). Guidelines for carbon markets and transparency were key issues of negotiations on this front.

Delegates were supposed to negotiate how carbon markets—that enable nations to buy and sell carbon credits internationally—were to be tracked, run and regulated. How to monitor, report and verify the implementation of NDCs was another key issue that required deliberation this year. However, despite the Paris Agreement coming into effect in 2020, delegates were unable to reach a consensus and these decisions have been pushed to next year.

Loss and Damage: Many countries and communities live in climate-sensitive ecosystems, and are continually impacted by the fast onset disaster events (like floods and landslides) or slow-onset events (like glacier melt and sea-level rise). No degree of adaptation will help avoid some forms of losses and damages to lives, livelihoods, property and culture brought on by these events. However, despite this, no dedicated financing mechanism has been allocated to address these impacts of climate change. The Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM), which was established in 2013 to address such loss and damage, has mostly been used to understand the science behind these issues but has done little in the way of providing financial, technology and capacity-building support.

This year, at COP, the mandate of the WIM was set to be reviewed. And while an agreement was made to create an expert panel to ‘support’ loss and damage and what is being called a ‘Santiago network’ to facilitate technical support, no concrete agreement was made regarding new and additional sources of funding, despite repeated emphasis from the Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs). There were also talks of redirecting such requests of loss and damage financing towards the Global Climate Fund (GCF), which does not only not have enough funds to cover its original purpose of providing mitigation and adaptation support but also has a lengthy procurement process which will make it useless during disasters.

Finance: In addition to providing finance for loss and damage, climate finance needs to support low-carbon climate-resilient development and climate adaptation activities in low-income countries, according to the ‘common but differentiated responsibility’ principle of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). However, most of these financing needs are currently met through voluntary donor assistance which are niether reliable, nor enough. The goal to mobilise $100 billion by 2020 to meet climate financing needs of developing countries is also nowhere close to being met, with pledges still left hanging at the $10 billion mark.

So, what happened?

Nations, this time around, failed to show the diplomacy and solidarity displayed during the 2015 Paris negotiations. Despite calls for immediate and coordinated global action, this year’s COP was fraught with contention because of polluting nations like Brazil, China, India, Australia and the US who used technicalities to hold up progress on many issues.

Manjeet Dhakal, the Head of the LDC Support Team at Climate Analytics and an advisor to the LDC Chair, says that COP25 had some useful outcomes as it concluded with a formal call for more ambitious 2020 NDCs that close the emissions gap and because of the progress made on the loss and damage front (which could be strengthened during future negotiations). However, he says, ‘many other aspects of the negotiations failed to materialize because of obstruction caused by some polluting nations who put individual greed before the collective good.’

Sujita writes her experience while working with Clean Energy Nepal

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Jan 082020
I believe that small things add up to better and bigger things, so I will continue in my endeavor to do small things in future as well. I would like to thank CEN for the opportunity it has provided me.

Sujita writes her experience while working with CEN

Photo: Participation on awareness program on the topic of climate change in my school (Shree Goth Bhanjyang Secondary School) as an organizer from NYCA

Photo: Participation on awareness program on the topic of climate change in my school (Shree Goth Bhanjyang Secondary School) as an organizer from NYCA

My name is Sujita Ghalan. I live in ‘Dalchoki’ which is located at Konjyosom Rural Municipality. The rural municipality lies on the southern part of Lalitpur district. I am studying +2 in Shree Goth Bhanjyang Secondary School in Dalchoki. I have had interest in environment since my childhood. Therefore I applied for an opportunity to work as an intern in Clean Energy Nepal (CEN). The internship was for two weeks.

In Clean Energy Nepal (CEN), I received information about climate change, global warming, greenhouse gases, air pollution, Conference of the parties (COP), Improved Cooking Stove (ICS), indoor air pollution etc. I also got an opportunity to participate in the “Friday for Future” with Nepalese Youth For Climate Action (NYCA), network of youth working on awareness regarding climate change. I also organized an awareness program on the topic of climate change in my school as a volunteer for NYCA.

Photo: Questionnaire survey taken to one of the Woman regarding impacts of indoor air pollution on woman at Dalchoki on 29 December, 2019

Photo: Questionnaire survey taken to one of the Woman regarding impacts of indoor air pollution on woman at Dalchoki on 29 December, 2019

Nepal is vulnerable to climate change. There are impacts of climate change faced by the people, however, people are not informed about the climate change and its impacts. This has motivated me to get involved and try to find a solution to such a grave problem.

As an intern in Clean Energy Nepal (CEN), in first week, I learned about the basics of communication skills and research in community through questionnaire survey. After a week of briefing and preparation, I went back to my village to conduct a questionnaire survey on the impact of indoor pollution. I conducted survey in 30 families whereby I asked different questions related to the topic with women member of the family.

One significant observation from the research is that most of the families use Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) cylinder for the cooking purpose but they also use fuelwood alternatively. Use of fuelwood is on decrease. The research helped me learn the practical aspect of my knowledge on the communication skills and research.  I will use this experience to make aware the community members in my village on the impacts of indoor air pollution on health of the people and climate change, Improved Cooking Stove (ICS). I believe that small things add up to better and bigger things, so I will continue in my endeavor to do small things in future as well. I would like to thank CEN for the opportunity it has provided me.

Photo: Photo taken while I participated in “Friday for future “on 20 December, 2019

Photo: Photo taken while I participated in “Friday for future “on 20 December, 2019

Bigger roads not a boon

 Clean Air, Sustainable transport  Comments Off on Bigger roads not a boon
Aug 062013

By Prashanta Khanal [Published in The Kathmandu Post]

Trying to solve traffic jams by building bigger roads is like trying to put out a fire with gasoline.” This quote from former mayor of Bogota Enrique Penalosa is worth mentioning at a time road expansion and multi-lane highways are top priority for our government, apparently to solve traffic congestion in the Kathmandu Valley. One of such projects is widening of the Ring Road to eight lanes with Chinese assistance.

Building multilane highways and flyovers is a recipe of disaster. As Penalosa said building bigger roads would further aggravate the problem. It not only attracts more people to use private vehicles for their daily mobility, but also discourage walking, cycling and using public transport. Such projects deteriorate the livability of a city with increasing congestion, pollution and road fatalities. Before building any transport infrastructure, we need to think how we can make efficient use of the existing urban road space, while providing efficient mobility to the people. We need to think whether the infrastructure and services are accessible to everyone, more importantly to the poor, elderly, people with disabilities, pedestrians and cyclists.

However, the roads are being designed and built only for those minorities of the urban population who can afford cars. What about the rights of safer mobility who cannot afford to ride cars? What about walking that has 40 percent of travel mode share? Planners are turning a blind eye to those who walk or cycle. The same road space that has apparently established democracy is itself undemocratically planned and unequally distributed. Urban roads are perfect example of inequality and divided society we live in. Cars are provided with more rights than for the people to walk or cycle.

More needs to be done

Recently Chinese State Councilor Yang Jiechi came to Nepal and inaugurated the Ring Road expansion project. The existing four-lane Ring Road from Kalanki to Koteshwor is being expanded to eight lanes with Chinese assistance. Moreover, the government is planning to add three improved intersections along the stretch, supposedly to ease the traffic flow. More than 1,600 trees along the 9.5km stretch are being cut down to create space for expansion. Hundreds of concerned citizens from Citizens for Trees and White Butterfly Movement signed a petition calling on the authorities to save trees, redesign the road to six lanes, and rethink the current urban transport policy. Despite this plea, the government and Chinese contractors are likely to go ahead with the planned design.

While motor vehicles are to be provided with an eight-lane road, pedestrians and cyclists are left with only 2.5m of road space. Although Nepal Road Standard clearly says that the sidewalks have to be at least 2.5m wide for urban roads, the government has failed to comply its own standards while designing roads.

There is no clear design on how the intersections and crossings will be provided for pedestrians and cyclists along the expanded stretch. Building a cycle track without safer crossings would put cyclists into more vulnerable position and discourage cycling. Three overhead bridges for pedestrians are said to be provided in 9.5km of the expanded stretch, which means a pedestrian has to walk as long as 3km just to cross a few meters of the road. How would a child and differently-able people be able to cross the street?

We do not need the eight-lane road. The six-lane Ring Road would be more than enough, in which two lanes can be exclusively provided for buses. The cycle track and pedestrian way each should be provided with at least 2.5m of right-of-way and prioritised crossing.

No consultations with local communities were held and no public participation is ensured while designing and planning the project.

In fact, the Nepal government itself has apparently no role in planning and implementing the Ring Road expansion project. It is the reality that how our so-called development partners provide their assistance in Nepal.

The Chinese dream

We are often mesmerised by the double digit economic growth in China, but we better understand that the rapid growth is happening at huge social and environmental cost. A recent study showed that outdoor air pollution contributed to 1.2 million premature deaths in China in 2010, almost equivalent to half of the population of the Kathmandu Valley. As more and more people can afford to buy cars, Chinese cities have seen rapid increase in car ownership resulting in notoriously bad air quality, traffic accidents and congestion.

China has recently pledged to spend $275 billion to curb air pollution in major cities. It has slowly realised the repercussion of car culture, and cities are moving away from making more spaces for cars. Cities like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Guiyang are already imposing restriction on car ownership and many other cities are planning to adopt a similar policy to curb vehicular emission and congestion in the cities.

China is now aggressively investing in public transport system and building bicycle infrastructures. Its cities are building more lines of metros and providing right-of-way for buses, known as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, which makes the bus service faster, more efficient and attractive. As of today there are 17 BRT system providing services to millions of passengers each day.

Guangzhou is an exemplary city on urban mobility. It has one of world’s best BRT systems, serving over 850,000 passengers each day, which is higher than most metro and light rail worldwide. Guangzhou BRT reduces CO2 emissions by 86,000 tonnes annually. It has 46km of segregated cycleways and over 5,000 on-street cycle parking facilities. It has built over 1,000km of greenways along the river corridors, which link all the city’s heritage sites and landscapes. If we look at Kathmandu, instead of restoring rivers and building greenways along the river corridors, we are building roads exclusively for motor vehicles.

Once dominated by bicycles, Chinese cities are now realising the importance of bicycle and are proactively promoting cycling. There are currently 39 public bike sharing scheme in China. Guangzhou launched a bike sharing system in 2010 with 5,000 bikes and 113 stations, primarily along the BRT corridor, which is used by around 20,000 people every day. Hangzhou, a city in southern China, has the largest bike sharing system in the world with over 65,000 bikes and 2,700 bike-share stations. The programme, which has around 325,000 daily system trips, was funded by the city government and has aimed to expand to 175,000 bikes by 2020.

We can learn much more from the Chinese cities, avoid the same mistakes they did and move towards more balanced and sustained development . It is not too late to redesign the Ring Road and make it more accessible, efficient and people friendly.

Renewable Energy Revolution

 Climate Change, Energy  Comments Off on Renewable Energy Revolution
Jun 192013

By Sunil Acharya
[Published in May-June 2013 issue of Face to Face]

Mainstreaming renewable energy is most reasonable way to tackle the growing energy crisis in Nepal.

We have long boasted about Nepal’s high potential for energy resources, which are mostly renewable. Yet only 40% of the population has access to electricity. Those who have access to electricity at times have to endure 16-hours daily power cuts.

The energy crisis is the largest obstacle for country’s economic development. Despite a sluggish improvement in the efforts to alter the state of affairs, there is a long road ahead for energy-secure Nepal. Can anything be done to speed up the transition? Certainly. But a long term vision is required for the sustainable development of renewable energy in Nepal.

The Hydropower Dilemma
We take pride to the fact that Nepal has hydropower generation potential amounting to 83,000 megawatts, with technical and economic potential amounting to 42,000 megawatts. After a century of hydropower development, the hydropower generation is a mere 700 megawatts (data for Fiscal year 2010/11). The plans to generate 10,000 MW hydropower in the next 10 years and 25,000 MW hydropower in the next 20 years are gathering dust in the selves due to bad investment environment. The idea of selling electricity to India is a popular political sloganeering only. We are in fact buying about 17% of total electricity supply from India.

Although, hydropower is a cheap form of energy, this sector faces a number of problems, such as the geo-politics of upstream-downstream water sharing.

It is high time that we revise the 50-year-old 83,000 megawatts hydropower potential because of deforestation, soil erosion, environmental degradation and climate change that have changed both our topography and hydrology. The high dam reservoir based plants are not appropriate because of difficulty in relocating increasing populations and from the environmental perspective. We already know the problem with run-off the river system, i.e. wet season-dry season variation in energy production. As an impact of climate change, there is a change in the river flow, thus making hydropower generation more difficult.

Hydropower is without the principal source of energy in Nepal; however, hydropower centric energy policies alone cannot solve the energy crisis. The present requirement is for the diversification in the energy mix or the other forms of renewable energy.

Burden on Biomass
Fuel wood supplies about 77% of the total energy demand in the country (data for 2008/9). Other sources of biomasses are agricultural residues and animal dung which contribute about 4% and 6% respectively. Of the total residential sector energy consumption, fuel wood comprises about 86.5%. According to the more recent data, 64% of households use fuel wood for cooking.

Deforestation has long remained a major challenge for Nepal. We can predict the dire state of forest sector by looking at the current trend of fuel wood consumption. Considering the problems of indoor air pollution and black carbon, there has to be a rapid shift in this fueltype consumption.

An unfair affair with Fossil fuel
The escalating consumption of diesel and petrol in transport sector coupled with ever rising prices has jeopardized the national economy. The share of petroleum is 8.2% of the total energy consumption. This figure does not include the dangerous trend of installing diesel generators for electricity production by urban residents, industries and businesses in recent years. Despite the high cost to the tune of 35 to 42 rupees per unit, there are estimates of about 500 to 700 megawatts of electricity being produced from privately owned diesel generators (Whilst there has been no official study yet, Clean Energy Nepal, a non government organization with support from Clean Air Asia is taking stock of diesel generators that are in use and electricity production through them in Kathmandu valley).

Kerosene is still used by more than 50% of rural people for lighting their homes.

Nepal cannot afford an affair with fossil fuel both from the economic and environmental considerations, especially considering the fact that Nepal is a leader of LDCs in international climate negotiations where alternative to fossil fuel based economy are being searched.

Renewable in the Sidelines
According to Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project, 3000 MW of electricity can be generated from wind energy if we only consider 10% of area with more than 300 W/m2 wind power density (WPD) in Nepal. Similarly, Nepal receives 3.6 to 6.2 kWh of solar radiation per square meter per day, with roughly 300 days of sun a year, making it ideal for solar energy.  If we use just 0.01% of the total area of Nepal, we can very generate solar electricity at 8GWh/day; that is 2920 GWh/year.

Despite the huge potential, only fraction of energy has been harnessed from renewable energy technologies such as micro-hydro, solar power, wind energy. At present, around 23 MW of electricity is generated from micro hydro schemes, 12 MW from solar PV system and less than 12 KW from wind energy.

The reason for such a slow progress in renewable energy is mainly due to high energy production cost from solar and wind energy technology. Due to the political reasons, the Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) has not adjusted its electricity tariff for a long time. Nepal is spending billions of rupees every year to import hydro-electricity, invertors and batteries. The good news is that renewable energy generation through solar and wind technologies have become efficient and cheaper globally.

The table below summarizes the dismal picture:

The table summarizes the dismal picture

Time for mainstreaming the alternatives
In Nepal, the micro-hydro, solar, wind and other biomass based technologies are often attributed as alternative energy. These alternative sources can be mainstream sources if only the right policies are made and implemented. There are a couple of policies related to renewable energy, including recently updated subsidy policy, but the main focus to date is only on rural electrification. While it is important to prioritize rural electrification using RE sources, it is equally important to prescribe technology type that is favorable to a particular area through research rather than making flat assumptions.

The tunnel vision of the policy makers is exemplified by not including Solar Photovoltaic technology installed in Urban areas in the subsidy policy endorsed in March this year and the effort of AEPC to revise it to incorporate waste to energy technology within months of endorsement. A policy should be a guiding document that can be used for decades not that it is altered every now and then.

The government is in the process of finalizing 20 years renewable energy perspective plan. The experts following the drafting process criticize it for not focusing on promoting renewable energy mainstreaming in urban area particularly that of Solar through community grids or Feed-in tariff (FIT) system. FIT is a system which enables communities and local private enterprise to participate in renewable energy production and the utility company (NEA in our case) pays to the producer.

Any policy that aims to mainstream renewable energy in Nepal requires a dual approach: independent off-grid system in rural area devoid of grid connection and grid interactive systems or reverse metering system for urban areas. The benefits of such systems are twofold; provide sustainable energy to the communities and bring economic gain due to reduction in transmission loss and distribution costs.

This is the right time for renewable energy revolution. But are we ready?

Passing the buck

 Climate Change  Comments Off on Passing the buck
Apr 092013

This article was published on The Republica (9 April, 2013) by Sunil Acharya and Manjeet Dhakal

A number of western news wires and climate pundits seem to be euphoric over the ‘declaration’ of some of the poorest countries to cut emissions of Green House Gases to tackle runaway climate change. We will soon know whether the group of least developed countries (LDCs) actually made the commitment, and if it is worth such a wide coverage, but let us first examine whether such a move from the LDCs will have any significance.

Scientific evidences suggest that the world is on the path to becoming 4 °C warmer within this century. It has already been verified that warming

Continue reading »

CEN Retreat to Ghalegaun, Lamjung

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Apr 012013

Though I travelled with new people whom I had just known for a month but it was such a pleasure and comfort to spend time with them. For me it was an awesome experience with the lovely CEN family.

Rassu writes about Staff retreat 2013 to Ghalegaun, Lamjung


CEN Retreat to Lamjung was an awesome experience. We had planned this trip almost one month earlier but due to the busy schedule of the staffs we managed to go on 1st February 2013. Altogether ten of us (Anjila Manandhar, Amita Thapa Magar, Krity Shrestha, Deependra Dongol, Rajan Thapa, Suman Udas, Prashant Khanal, Dipesh Chapagain, Sunil Acharaya and myself) left for Lamjung from Kalanki (south-west entry point to Kathmandu) at about 8 o clock in the morning. Continue reading »

Cycle city

 Clean Air, Sustainable transport  Comments Off on Cycle city
Jan 182013

If Kathmandu is pedestrian and cycle-friendly, there’s no need to invest massive resources on roads and mass transit
This article by Prashanta Khanal was published on The Kathmandu Post on JAN 18 2013

Around 30 percent of urban households own bicycles whereas less than 28 percent own private vehicles. In fact, a mere four percent own cars, according to the 2011 National Census Report. However, the planners have overlooked this fact and failed to recognise cycling as an integral part of urban transport planning. The roads are often built only for motor vehicles. With bigger roads and increasing motorisation, the roads have become unsafe for cyclists. A study even shows that the travel mode share of cycles in Kathmandu Valley has dropped from 6.6 percent in 1991 to 1.5 percent in 2011. Continue reading »

Cities for people

 Sustainable transport  Comments Off on Cities for people
Oct 192012

Highways and elevated expressways are not the right solution to meet the increasing mobility demands of a growing urban population

This article by Prashanta Khanal was published on The Kathmandu post on 19 October, 2012

We live in a city that respects those who ride in cars but not those who walk or cycle. We have been building more space for cars and motorbikes than for people to live in. Streets are often designed and built in a way that ensures the swift movement of vehicles, not people. Already-scarce urban spaces have been turned into parking lots and wider roads for private vehicles, while there is a lack of space for our children to even play and walk around.
No wonder—the way we are building our city is fundamentally flawed. Unless we shift the paradigm of urban development and redesign the city by putting people and sustainability at the centre of development, the urban problems are not going to go anywhere. Continue reading »

Make city air breathable

 Sustainable transport  Comments Off on Make city air breathable
Sep 112012

This article was published on The Kathmandu Post on 11 Sept, 2012

In Kathmandu Valley, one of the world’s most polluted cities, every breath is slowly killing you. Over 1,900 people die every year in the Valley due to air pollution, coming down to five premature deaths each day, according to a 2006 study by the Nepal Health Research Council and the World Health Organization. The number is likely to risen even higher in recent years as the Capital’s air quality has only continued to deteriorate.

Noxious vehicular smoke is largely to blame for the poor air quality of the city. Transport alone contributes to over 60 percent of particulate matter Continue reading »

A cleaner, greener Nepal

 Clean Air, Sustainable transport  Comments Off on A cleaner, greener Nepal
Jul 312012

Electric vehicles play a vital role in boosting the national economy by using locally produced hydropower and minimizing air pollution as well as mitigating greenhouse gas emissions.

This article by Manjeet Dhakal was published on MYREPUBLICA on 31 July, 2012

In a bid to promote clean technology in the country, Nepal has more than 700 electric vehicles (Safa tempos) running in the valley—a commendable effort to reduce its dependency on fossil fuels. Safa tempos are best driven for short distances and at relatively slow speeds, all of which suits the natural topography of Kathmandu valley. These green machines, which are mostly operated by women drivers, hold a lot of potential for the country’s economy and can tap Nepal’s massive hydropower potential to create a regional energy grid that contributes Continue reading »