Clean Energy News Vol. 12, Number 27, September 05, 2012
|Clean Energy News
Vol. 12, Number 27, September 05, 2012
|CE News is a weekly e-publication that features news, information and events related to clean energy, clean air and climate change. CE News is published by Clean Energy Nepal. For more information on our campaigns please visit www.cen.org.np|
|In this Issue|
|• Fuel prices go up again
• Bureaucracy holds up climate adaptation finance
• Drought in the middle of the monsoon
• Parbat flashflood wreaks havoc
• Kathmandu, the Masked City
• Why are climate negotiations locked in a stalemate?
• Large Methane Reservoirs beneath Antarctic Ice Sheet, Study Suggests
• Black carbon's role in climate change may be overstated
• A Chinese City Moves to Limit New Cars
• Link Of The Week
• Did You Know?
• Media Watch
• QUIZ Of The Week # 524
• Answer Of Quiz Of The Week # 523
Fuel prices go up again
02 September, 2012
The Kathmandu Post
Nepal Oil Corporation on Sunday raised the prices of petroleum products.
The new rates that followed a board meeting on Sunday night will come into effect on Monday. The state-owned oil monopoly has raised Rs 5 on a litre of petrol, Rs 4 on a litre of diesel and kerosene and Rs 55 on a cylinder of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). With the revised prices, petrol will now cost Rs 125 per litre and diesel/kerosene Rs 97 per litre. The price of an LPG cylinder will cost 1,470.
According to a source at the NOC, the rise in prices of oil in the international market compelled the NOC to effect the hike. The monthly projected loss of the NOC balloned three folds to Rs 1.17 billion as per the oil tariff sent by the Indian Oil Corporation on Saturday. NOC’s loans to the government and banks and financial institutions currently stand over Rs 26 billion. The last time NOC revised fuel prices were on June 20.
Bureaucracy holds up climate adaptation finance
05 September, 2012
A tortuous planning process in Nepal is preventing climate adaptation funding - earmarked under the country’s National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) - from reaching local communities, experts say. “We are so engrossed in national processes,” Raju Pandit Chhetri, co-author of a 2011 Oxfam report on climate adaptation finance, told IRIN. “Let us start going to the communities.”
Of 170 countries, Nepal has been ranked by Maplecroft, in its most recent Climate Change Vulnerability Index 2011, as the fourth-most vulnerable to the impact of climate change over the next 30 years. The country received US$1.3 million in donor aid in 2008 to prepare a NAPA, which was endorsed by the government and submitted to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2010. Of NAPA’s proposed $350 million budget for urgent climate adaptation support, Nepal has secured around $10 million through the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Fund, managed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), and less than $25 million from bilateral aid agencies.
The NAPA document stipulates that 80 percent of all “available financial resources reach the local level to fund on-the-ground adaptation activities.” However, little funding has come in for projects and these projects are not ready for implementation. “Unfortunately, we are in a stage of preparedness and readiness. We are trying to jump but we have not jumped yet,” said Bharat Pokharel, deputy country programme director for the Swiss development agency, Helvetas.
Funding proposals for NAPA preparation and implementation have to be sent to the GEF through a designated Implementing Agency (IA) - in Nepal’s case the UN Development Programme (UNDP). According to Batu Uprety, recently retired chief of the Climate Change Management Division at the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MoE), the complex and lengthy procedure to access LDC funds through IAs has resulted in further delays. UNDP insists, however, that NAPA was finalized within the 18 months allotted for the project. The timeline “was agreed with the government”, explained Anupa Rimal Lamichhane, climate change programme analyst at UNDP. “I would not say it was long or short.”
In a July 2012 submission to the UNFCCC, Nepal suggested the GEF “take necessary decisions to encourage its IAs to take a fast-start approach to support LDCs.”
But it is not just that the planning process is slow: New plans outside the NAPA framework are making things more complicated. Besides NAPA, a separate plan was developed in 2011 for the Strategic Programme for Climate Resilience (SPCR), for which the Climate Investment Funds (funds to help developing countries pilot low-emissions and climate-resilient development), approved $50 million in grants and $36 million in loans to be managed by multilateral development banks.
By distinguishing short-term adaptation from long-term resilience, “they stalled every aspect of going to the community and started planning again,” said Chhetri, adding that lack of coordination resulted in projects moving forward in parallel tracks with overlaps.
Under SPCR, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) will prepare 100 community level adaptation plans across 61 districts by 2017; a project strikingly similar to the 70 village-level Local Adaptation Plans of Action (LAPA) developed for 14 districts in mid- and far-western Nepal under NAPA. The difference is that while the LAPAs will be implemented this year, ADB makes no claim to “actually implement” their plans within the five-year time frame. Surya Bahadur Singh, consulting climate change management specialist for the ADB, admitted that the “LAPA is one step further; they are actually implementing.”
Meanwhile, donors are reluctant to move beyond planning, policy-making and capacity-building because they do not have confidence in the ability of national and local organizations to follow through, said Helvetas’s Pokharel. Many see the MoE as weak, noting it does not have executing bodies at the regional, district or village level, and limited experience coordinating large donor-funded projects. Ultimately, experts argue that while the new field of climate science demands preparation, the country should not be deterred from addressing climate adaptation at the grassroots. Insights gained through fieldwork are very valuable. “Only then will we know what works and not,” said retired MoE official Uprety.
Several organizations have started local projects, independently of national climate adaptation mechanisms. “They are often at the forefront of working with communities and community organizations; innovating, piloting initiatives and seeing the results of policy implementation,” says the Oxfam report. For decades, communities across this mountain nation of more than 30 million have been adapting to changes autonomously, without state intervention or donor support, Pokharel noted. It is time that their initiative is acknowledged and compensated, without which “they have not been given justice”.
Drought in the middle of the monsoon
By Madhukar Upadhya
31 August, 2012
Farmers in Panchkhal Valley east of Kathmandu have been seen this season carrying kerosene jerry cans to run water pumps to irrigate their paddy fields. Ordinarily that would not be surprising, but this was the middle of the monsoon.
At a time when streams here in Kavre district would be swollen, they were dry. Jhiku Khola, the lifeblood of this valley, did not have a normal flow this year even in August, behaving more like a season stream. Much of the upland rice terraces would have remained fallow if it hadn't been for the water pumps, which run on kerosene because of the electricity shortage.
Natural springs, which should have been gurgling with water are still dry this year. The monsoon has been arriving late by up to two weeks for the last few years, which is delaying rice plantation, reducing ripening time and harvests. In Dhankuta in eastern Nepal, only about half the paddy has been planted this monsoon. Hill farmers wait till the first week of August, and if it still does not rain adequately, the drop in harvest doesn't make plantation worthwhile.
The riddle for us was why the Jhiku Khola in Kavre was dry. Lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and aquifers in the hills are full in the four monsoon months even when only a fraction of the precipitation seeps underground to recharge groundwater. That groundwater seeping out of mountain slopes (mool) is what people in the hills depend on for their water needs.
Traditionally, Nepalis have names for three types of springs in the mountains: the more or less permanent sthayi mool at the foot of hills, the one that comes to life in July called asare mool and then the saune mool that bursts in August. The timing of springs indicates the extent to which the monsoon has replenished groundwater reserves in the hills.
After mid-September saune mool first begins to dwindle, whereas asare mool continues to flow for a longer period, sometimes even until November. Interestingly, the saune mool does not burst every year, and farmers know that in such a poor monsoon year bumper winter crops can never be expected as the streams too will dry out sooner.
Farmers in Panchkhal had to use water pumps because asare mool did not come to life even in the middle of the monsoon. It is unlikely that saune mool will appear this year, which means Panchkhal will suffer yet another winter, sixth year in a row, of acute water shortage. All this is indication that Panchkhal, Ramechhap, Taplejung are facing rainfall variability, most probably due to climate change.
The springs have ceased to flow at a time when they are expected to be flowing in full capacity. If what is happening to springs is an indication of a fundamental shift in the timing of rainfall, its distribution, impacts of building road networks, and a lasting change in water regime, it will have major impact on hill agriculture. The crops we grow, the level of production, cropping cycle, dairy production, and overall food security will all be affected. It will take a long time before we adapt to the changed timing of the new water cycle.
Parbat flashflood wreaks havoc
By Ghanashyam Khadka
02 September, 2012
Flashflood triggered by a landslide at Lungdi stream in Parbat district wiped out two motorable bridges, disrupted water supply in nearly 200 households, swept away a power station and submerged a large area of farmland on Saturday night.
Police said the flashflood swept away a bridge along the Maldhunga-Beni road, disrupting vehicular movement between Parbat and Myagdi districts. The swollen stream also washed away a temporary motorable bridge linking Shalija and Dhairing VDCs. A power station in Thotneri village in Shalija VDC was also destroyed in the flood. The flood also swept away a pipeline that supplied drinking water to nearly 200 households in Jukepani village; damaged an irrigation canal in Dhairing VDC and destroyed a huge tract of farmland.
As many as 40 houses in Dhairing VDC are at high risk of flood, former VDC chairman Rudralal Acharya said. Milanchowk village is also in danger. Saturday night’s flooding damaged 20 houses and displaced their occupants there. Deputy Superintendent of Police Kedar Khanal said the Lungdi stream needs to be controlled immediately to prevent flooding in Milanchowk. He said property worth around Rs 20 million were damaged in the flood.
Kathmandu, the Masked City
By Samik Kharel
06 September, 2012
Political upheavals aside, Kathmandu can be divided into two simple eras: the pre-mask and the mask era. These two eras are characterised by the level of pollution in the Capital city: less pollution (pre-mask) and heavily polluted (mask era). These are not masks to hide one’s identity but rather, to simply protect against dust, dirt and pollution of Kathmandu’s streets. The mask era can be traced to the 1990s, when the city started to undergo rapid urbanisation. The number of vehicles increased exponentially, rivers began to get clogged with waste and sewage, newly-built industries began spewing thick, black smoke into the atmosphere and massive construction projects turned the city of temples into a gigantic concrete jungle.
Bombarded by dust and smoke the moment they stepped out of their homes, Kathmandu denizens began adopting something previously uncommon, a small cloth mask over the nose and mouth whenever outside. While unpopular as an ugly fashion statement at first, more and more people began adopting the masked look, sacrificing aesthetics for their health. Now, they are a common sight. Many pedestrians and especially motorcycle riders don’t leave home without it. If you have ever been stuck on a motorbike behind a massive truck belching out black smoke so thick it’s almost opaque, you would understand this fastidiousness. With increasing pollution, mask sales have skyrocketed. Malls sell high-end masks on one corner of the street while mobile street vendors who previously only sold socks, handkerchiefs and belts, have added masks to their eclectic collection.
Experts claim that these masks filter about 95 percent of larger air particles. However, the masks do not protect adequately against small droplets suspended in the air that carry viruses. A mask once contaminated should never be used again as frequent use of the same mask ca invite other health hazards. However, doctors agree that a sanitised mask prolongs and protects human life in Kathmandu as it prevents large pollutant particles from entering the lungs and causing diseases. While these masks might protect against dust, dirt and pollution, they are not quite as effective against periodic biological threats that crop up time and again, Anthrax, Swine Flu and Bird Flu to name a few. The government even imported hi-tech masks to protect their agents at the post office against possible Anthrax attacks. Farmers and livestock keepers also equipped themselves with masks once the Bird and Swine flu spread and the threat already seemed severe.
Not just commoners but even politicians and the elite with their luxury vehicles seem to have caught on to wearing a mask. A few months back, Prime Minister BaburamBhattarai added a face mask to his dress code when he came out to the local community with an ambitious cleanliness campaign. The initiative was good and saw great participation, however once Nepalis discovered the costs and true quality of the masks the government had made available, Bhattarai’s cleanliness campaign was mired in controversy. However, even among this mask generation, there are characters who defy its use.
With the recent road expansion and the resulting debris, Kathmandu is now murkier than ever. Masks have become more common on the streets as people grow aware of the hazards of breathing in polluted air and dust. If a simple mask will effectively stop most of the harmful particles, why not adopt it as part of one’s attire? After all, the eyes and ears are still visible and open.
Why are climate negotiations locked in a stalemate?
By Pablo Solon and Walden Bello
04 September, 2012
The Bangkok intersessional meeting of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is about to end, with no progress among countries to commit to increasing the level of emission reductions for this decade. Why are the climate talks stalemated and what should be done to break the deadlock?
Alarming developments: Over the last year alone, the Greenland ice sheet has virtually vanished. This July was the hottest July in the US ever since they started keeping records. A normally dry Beijing had the worst flooding since 1951. Long-delayed monsoon rains in India resulted in the second drought in four years. The ensuing bad harvest and the worst power outages in the country's history could cause a 5% decrease in GDP growth. Last month, a protracted "rainstorm with no name", as many Filipinos termed it, persisted for over a week in the Philippines and plunged Manila into a watery disaster that is probably the worst in recent history. And of course Thailand itself was a water world for over a month last year due to floods.
Climate change is triggered by the accumulation of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The developed countries, termed in UNFCCC parlance as Annex 1 countries, contributed 70% of the greenhouse gases from 1890 to 2007. Yet these countries have also been the most difficult to persuade to seriously address global warming by curbing their emissions, limiting consumption, and providing finance and technology for developing countries to deal with climate change.
The stalemate: The US Congress is populated by Republican climate sceptics who continue to believe, against all evidence, that climate change is a figment of the liberal imagination and have prevented the passage of what is already a weak climate bill. The European Union's false face in climate diplomacy was clearly seen here too, as it insisted on a pledge of 20% emission cuts instead of 25%, calling the latter "wishful thinking" and unrealistic. The EU's commitment will be accomplished largely through weak or unrealistic containment measures like carbon trading or techno-fixes like carbon sequestration and storage, not by moderating economic growth or reducing consumption. The North-South dimension has added a deadly dynamic to this process, as the so-called emerging capitalist economies of the South, notably China, India, Brazil and South Africa, make claims to their share of ecological space to grow even as the North continues to refuse to give up any of the vast ecological space they now occupy and exploit. China is now the world's biggest contributor of greenhouse gases, but the basis of its refusal to entertain mandatory limits is that its accumulated emissions have been quite low, about 9% of the historical total.
The refusal of the North to curb high consumption and the intention of big emerging economies to reproduce the Northern consumption model lies at the root of the deadlock in the climate change negotiations _ one symbolised by the failure of the talks in Copenhagen in 2009, Cancun in 2010 and Durban in 2011 to agree on the contours of a successor agreement to the Kyoto Protocol. What was agreed in Durban is a regime of "laissez faire" until 2020 where only "voluntary pledges" for emission reductions will be done. The tragedy is that these pledges are going to represent only a 13% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels, and this will lead to an increase in the global mean temperature of at least 4-6 degrees Celsius in this century.
Reflecting what many see as incomprehensible attitude of Washington, US climate official Todd Stern recently urged governments to be "more flexible" with the 2 degree Celsius target. This can only provide the governments of Annex 1 countries an excuse to postpone making commitments, if not junk mandatory reductions altogether. In reality US and China both want a weaker climate agreement. The US because their influential politicians and corporations are not committed to deep real cuts. China's leaders realise that the longer they can put off a legally binding agreement, the better for them since China will rank top in greenhouse gas emissions in a few years and a weak agreement will be in its interest. The climate talks stalemate is not the result of a contradiction between the two biggest powers but of a common approach not to be obliged to change their policies of consumption, production, and gaining control of natural resources around the world.
The position of the delegations of the US and China and many other countries reflects more the concerns of their elites than of their people. For example, in China there are massive protests against environmentally destructive development projects. In the US and Canada the movement against the exploitation of tar sands is the expression of a civil society that wants to stop polluting our planet. The elites of emerging economies are using the just demand of "historical responsibility" or "common but differentiated responsibility" in order to win time and have a weak binding agreement by 2020 that they will be part of. The deliberate prolonging of the stalemate means allowing business as usual. Given that this strategy has led to a dead end, it is imperative that in the UNFCCC negotiations civil society must regain its independent voice and articulate a position distinct from that of the Group of 77 and China.
Forging a new approach: We must demand that Annex 1 countries make legally binding commitments to real deep cuts (40-50% until 2020) without offsets and commit to them in the coming Conference of Parties in Doha. They must commit real and new funds immediately to the Green Climate Fund and guarantee transfer of technology as part of their historical responsibility. At the same time, we should demand that China, India, Brazil and South Africa also agree to mandatory cuts without offsets, although of course, these should be lower than the Annex 1 countries, in line with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) principles. Big emerging economies, which are launched into high-speed, consumption-dependent, and greenhouse gases-intensive growth paths, can no longer hide behind the rubric of the Group of 77 to avoid making mandatory greenhouse gases reduction commitments.
Even as we demand that both Annex 1 and the emerging economies make mandatory commitments, other governments, though they may not be significant greenhouse gases emitters, must be encouraged to make binding commitments. This will send a very strong message to both the Annex 1 and emerging economies that a real binding agreement is needed now. Many developing countries have the capacity to commit to reducing their emissions. Mitigation must be a collective effort, and industrialising developing countries can't be seen demanding cuts while increasing their own emissions, in many cases for the benefit of their upper classes. We can no longer tolerate a situation whereby the United States and China portray themselves as opponents but actually provide each other with the rationale to pursue their environmentally destabilising greenhouse-gas-intensive economic trajectories.
Large Methane Reservoirs beneath Antarctic Ice Sheet, Study Suggests
29 August, 2012
The Antarctic Ice Sheet could be an overlooked but important source of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, according to a report in the August 30 issue of Nature by an international team of scientists.
The new study demonstrates that old organic matter in sedimentary basins located beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet may have been converted to methane by micro-organisms living under oxygen-deprived conditions. The methane could be released to the atmosphere if the ice sheet shrinks and exposes these old sedimentary basins. Coauthor Slawek Tulaczyk, a professor of Earth and planetary sciences at UC Santa Cruz, said the project got its start five years ago in discussions with first author Jemma Wadham at the University of Bristol School of Geographical Sciences, where Tulaczyk was on sabbatical. "It is easy to forget that before 35 million years ago, when the current period of Antarctic glaciations started, this continent was teeming with life," Tulaczyk said. "Some of the organic material produced by this life became trapped in sediments, which then were cut off from the rest of the world when the ice sheet grew. Our modeling shows that over millions of years, microbes may have turned this old organic carbon into methane."
The science team estimated that 50 percent of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (1 million square kilometers) and 25 percent of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (2.5 million square kilometers) overlies pre-glacial sedimentary basins containing about 21,000 billion metric tons of organic carbon.
The researchers numerically simulated the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model. They found that sub-ice conditions favor the accumulation of methane hydrate (that is, methane trapped within a structure of water molecules, forming a solid similar to regular ice).
They also calculated that the potential amount of methane hydrate and free methane gas beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet could be up to 4 billion metric tons, a similar order of magnitude to some estimates made for Arctic permafrost. The predicted shallow depth of these potential reserves also makes them more susceptible to climate forcing than other methane hydrate reserves on Earth.
If substantial methane hydrate and gas are present beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet, methane release during episodes of ice-sheet collapse could act as a positive feedback on global climate change during past and future ice-sheet retreat.
Black carbon's role in climate change may be overstated
By Beth Daley
05 September, 2012
Black carbon - the main ingredient of airborne soot - has long believed to be a key contributor to climate change with its warming impact second only to carbon dioxide. In fact, some scientists and policy makers have suggested targeting black carbon emissions, which live only one to two weeks in the atmosphere, as a possible way to fight global warming.
But a new study in smoggy California by Boston College and other researchers suggests that black carbon absorbs significantly less sunlight than previously thought. Published in the journal Science Aug. 31, the study doesn't change the fact that the world is warming, but it could mean climate models may be overstating the role of black carbon.
Boston College chemistry professor Paul Davidovits, an expert on airborne particles, and Timothy B. Onasch, principal scientist at Aerodyne Research Inc. in Billerica and an associate research professor of chemistry at BC, aided in the study led by University of California, Davis.
A Chinese City Moves to Limit New Cars
By Keith Bradsher
04 September, 2012
The New York Times
The municipal government of Guangzhou, a sprawling metropolis that is one of China’s biggest auto manufacturing centers, introduced license plate auctions and lotteries last week that will roughly halve the number of new cars on the streets.
The crackdown by China’s third-largest city is the most restrictive in a series of moves by big Chinese cities that are putting quality-of-life issues ahead of short-term economic growth, something the central government has struggled to do on a national scale. The measures have the potential to help clean up China’s notoriously dirty air and water, reduce long-term health care costs and improve the long-term quality of Chinese growth. But they are also imposing short-term costs, economists say, at a time when policy makers in Beijing and around the world are already concerned about a sharp economic slowdown in China. “Of course from the government’s point of view, we give up some growth, but to achieve better health for all citizens, it is definitely worth it,” said Chen Haotian, the vice director of Guangzhou’s top planning agency.
Nanjing and Hangzhou in east-central China are moving to require cleaner gas and diesel. Cities near the coast, from Dongguan and Shenzhen in southeastern China to Wuxi and Suzhou in the middle and Beijing in the north, are pushing out polluting factories. And Xi’an and Urumqi in northwestern China are banning and scrapping cars built before 2005, when automotive emissions rules were less stringent.
Facing public pressure to address traffic jams and pollution, municipal governments from across China have been sending delegations to Guangzhou. But the national government in Beijing is pushing back against further car restrictions because of worries about the huge auto industry, said An Feng, a senior adviser in Beijing to transportation policy makers. Beijing’s municipal government started limiting new license plates at the start of last year when the economy was in danger of overheating, but Guangzhou is the first city to act during the current slowdown. Faced with public dissatisfaction over traffic, Guangzhou has also built an extensive subway system in the last few years, along with large parks and a renowned opera house.
The local government initiatives are not the main cause of the Chinese economy’s difficulties. The government clamped down on credit a year ago in a successful bid to rein in inflation, but starved many small and medium-size businesses of credit in the process. Other broad economic problems have been building for years. These include industrial overcapacity and the monopolistic grip of many state-owned enterprises, as well as the inefficient allocation of loans. But for now, the growing regulatory burden on business is reinforcing a trend toward slower growth, economists say.
Polluting factories being pushed out of increasingly affluent cities in southeastern China are being turned away by poorer cities in western and northern China unless they install costly, extensive equipment to control emissions, said Stanley Lau, the deputy chairman of the Hong Kong Federation of Industries, a trade group representing manufacturers that employ nearly 10 million workers in mainland China.
|Link of the Week|
By Raju Pandit Chettri
|Did you Know ?|
A 2006/2007 study by Clean Energy Nepal (CEN) shows that the number of deaths due to COPD at Bir Hospital in the year 2005/2006 was 51, and this jumped to 96 in 2006/2007. In the year 2011/2012, a whopping 376 COPD cases have been reported. And children, especially infants, are in the frontline.
|Media and Event Watch|
Every Sunday 7:30 am on Ujyalo FM 90 MHZ "Jalabayu Puran"
Every Monday 8:30 pm on Nepal FM 91.8 MHZ “Climate Change Mero Bhawisya Mero Chaso”
Every Sunday at 7:30 am on Radio Sagarmatha 102.4 MHz "Batabaran Dabali"
Every Monday at 5:30 pm on ABC Television “Climate Change
Every Alternate Friday at 2 PM on ENPHO Hall – “Green Discussion” Organized by Clean Energy Nepal, Nepalese Youth for Climate Action anGrnd Green Youth Network
Every Friday on The Himalayan Times “THT Green Plus”
Environment Cycle Radio F.M.104.2Mhz (ECR FM)
|QUIZ of the Week # 524|
COP 18 will be held in one of the Asian countries, i.e. Qatar. Which country from Asia group was another contender to hold the COP 18 before Qatar was selected ?
While sending your answer please mention “Quiz of the week#” in the subject line and please send your answer in email@example.com
One lucky winner will get an attractive prized from Clean Energy Nepal.
|Answer of the week # 523|
c) United States of America
The following participants provided correct answer:
Suresh Kumar Chettri
Suresh Kumar Chettri is the winner of the week. Please contact CEN office with your valid ID card within a week.
Congratulations to the winner and thanks to all the participants.
140 Bublbule Marg, Thapagaon, Kathmandu, Nepal. Tel: 977-1-44464981