Clean Energy News Vol. 12, Number 2, January 18, 2012
Clean Energy News
Vol. 12, Number 2, January 18, 2012
CE News is a free weekly e-mail publications that features news, information and events related tp clean energy, clean air and climate change. CE News is published by Clean Energy Nepal. For more information on our campaign please visit www.cen.org.np
• Climate Change Repercussions: An Odyssey to Highlight Himalayas’ Plight
• Govt to Introduce 'Scientific Transportation Fare'
• Mercury Hits Zero in Kathmandu
• Public Vehicles Not Disabled-Friendly
• NOC Hikes Petro Prices
• 'Expedite Bharatpur-Hetauda Power Line'
• One Company behind U.S.'S Top Three Biggest Greenhouse Gas Emitters
• Atmospheric Particles Causing More Rain
• China Sets Historic Limits on GHG Emissions from Select Regions
• NASA GISS Identifies 14 Air Pollution Control Measures to Slow Global Warming
• Climate Change Ripples Through Mountain Ecosystems
• Slow Global Warming by Cutting Soot, Methane
• Link Of The Week
• Did You Know?
• Media Watch
• QUIZ Of The Week # 505
• Answer Of Quiz Of The Week # 504
Climate Change Repercussions: An Odyssey to Highlight Himalayas’ Plight
By Pragati Shahi
Although a series of meetings and conferences on climate change have so far failed to address the plight of the Himalayas, efforts have been made in recent years to make the problem more perceptible globally.
Apa Sherpa, 51, who has scaled Mt Everest for the record 21st time has now become a global celebrity from Nepal to raise the profile of the Himalayan glaciers that are facing serious repercussions of the climate change. Himalayan mountains serve as a freshwater storage for around 1.2 billion population living in the region. Since 2009, Apa, along with his team, including two-time Everest climber Dawa Steven Sherpa, has toured different cities in Europe and America and met dozens of mountaineers, political leaders and the public to draw their attention towards mountains and their vulnerability to the rising temperatures. “During my visits, I found most people in the West were not aware of climate change issues on mountains and the vulnerable communities,” Apa said. According to him, the people were interested in knowing more about the mountains and its people and the impact of climate change on them. The people also showed interest to support the cause, Apa said. It is because the science to back the evidence, research and stories is still lacking in the context of mountain glaciers and problems associated with them. So, in search of solutions to such problems, Apa and Dawa are embarking on a 1,700-km and 120 day-long Great Himalaya Trail (GHT) from coming Sunday. The team will meet the vulnerable communities along the trek that will pass through eight out of the ten highest mountains of the world.
The historic GHT trek is endorsed by the government and is being implemented by GHT Development Programme (GHTDP) led by the Ministry of Civil Aviation and supported by development partners, namely DFID, SNV and the British Council. According to Prashant Singh, the chief executive officer of the Himalayan Climate Initiative (HCI), GHT-Climate Smart Celebrity Trek (CSCT) will focus on four important areas. They are talk and interaction with local people on visible changes observed on weather and rainfall patterns and its impact on agriculture and livelihood, documenting climate resilience strategies practiced by the mountain communities, initiating work to help the vulnerable communities with donors' support, and identifying possibilities of low-carbon alternatives like wind, solar and biogas, among others. The trek will be instrumental in exploring the possibility of promotion of tourism and related products to people across the globe. A team of seven researchers are conducting a study on climate change. A latest report prepared by a group of scientists associated with the ICIMOD states 21 percent of glacial area cover has been decreased in the past 30 years in the country. They will visit 20 districts of the country.
Source: http://www.ekantipur.com January 12, 2012
Govt to Introduce 'Scientific Transportation Fare'
Minister for Labour and Transport Management Sarita Giri has said that the government has been preparing to fix the fares of the transportation scientifically for the long-term solution, RSS reports.
Inaugurating the golden jubilee of the Eastern Transport Entrepreneur Association (ETEA) on Monday, Minister Giri also said that the government is also mulling to form Nepal Transport Authority to monitor the transportation sector. Saying that the government was positive about resolving the problems of transport sector, Giri also urged the entrepreneurs to come up with alternatives agendas. Similarly, Minister also expressed hope that the problems witnessed in the sector will gradually end after the promulgation of new constitution.
Source: http://www.nepalnews.com January 16, 2012
Mercury Hits Zero in Kathmandu
By Om Astha Rai
Denizens of Kathmandu Valley on Saturday experienced the coldest morning of the last two years as the temperature reached freezing point.
The Meteorological Forecasting Division (MFD) recorded a minimum temperature of 0.0 degree Celsius Saturday morning. At 0.0 degree Celsius water starts changing from liquid to solid. This is the first time in the last two years that the Valley´s minimum temperature has plunged so low. Last winter, the minimum temperature was 0.5 degree Celsius, on January 10 and 14. MFD has forecast the Valley´s minimum temperature at minus 1 degree Celsius for Sunday morning before sunrise. This is the first time this year that MFD has forecast minus zero weather. "Since the rains last Monday, the Valley is getting colder by the day," said senior meteorologist Rajendra Shrestha. "And the minimum temperature is all set to plunge further Sunday morning." Valley temperatures have not gone below zero degree since 2010. On January 12 that year, the minimum temperature was recorded at -0.2 degree Celsius. However, people did not feel too cold in the afternoon that day as maximum temperature exceeded 22.6 degrees. On Saturday, the maximum temperature was recorded at 16.8 degrees, and people experienced biting cold almost throughout the day. Weather experts say Saturday´s low temperature is somehow linked to Monday´s rains. "Dark clouds over the Valley nearly disappeared following the rains. The weather has remained fair for the last few days and this has resulted in a strong north-westerly wind," Shrestha at MFD said. "If you´re out in the open, you can feel the strong wind." The speed and intensity of the north-westerly, according to Shrestha, have caused a drastic drop in mercury. "If the weather continues fair, the mercury will plunge further," he said. In cloudy weather, chances are there is no wind or only low wind. "There is no drastic drop in mercury in such weather even if the sun is elusive," Shrestha said.
Source: http://myrepublica.com January 15, 2012
Public Vehicles Not Disabled-Friendly
By Pritam Bhattarai
Macharaj Maharjan, a differently-abled who cannot move his feet properly, has been facing difficulties in boarding public vehicles.
A permanent resident of Battisputali, Kathmandu, Maharjan said public vehicles do not stop for him when they identify his disability. In a recent incident, he had to wait for almost two hours to get on a public vehicle at Kamalpokhari, Kathmandu. “It was a tiresome wait before I was able to get on a bus,” he said, adding that most often he gets help from the traffic police while boarding a vehicle. Dharma Thapa, a wheelchair user from Jhapa, has a similar problem to share. He struggles to get a ticket for a long route bus, let alone avail of a discount on its price or a seat reserved for people like him. Trouble Maharjan and Thapa are facing is only the tip of the iceberg. Almost all the disabled people, according to disabled rights activists, have a tough time boarding public vehicles. Teknath Neupane, vice president of the National Federation of the Disabled Nepal, said though differently abled people are entitled to discounts or priority in public vehicles, the reality is pathetic. Neupane, who himself is fully blind, said that disabled people, especially visually impaired ones, are cheated while getting a change, taking advantage of their difficulty in identifying currency notes or coins.
According to the public transport code of conduct, seats in public vehicles should be reserved for women and people with disabilities and they must be helped to board vehicles. Differently abled people constitute 10 percent of the country’s total population.
Source: http://www.ekantipur.com January 15, 2012
NOC Hikes Petro Prices
The Nepal Oil Corporation (NOC) has increased the prices of LP Gas (cooking gas) by Rs 175 per cylinder, petrol by Rs 10 and diesel and kerosene by Rs 9 each per liter.
With the price hike, LP Gas per cylinder will now cost Rs 1,500 per cylinder, petrol Rs 115, and diesel and kerosene Rs 85 each per liter, the NOC said in a statement on Wednesday. Previously, the price of LP Gas was Rs 1,325 per cylinder. Similarly, the prices of petrol and diesel and kerosene were fixed at Rs 105 and Rs 76 each per liter. In the statement, the NOC has said it had to increase the prices to make for the loss repeatedly incurred by the state oil monopoly. The NOC has also said it decided to hike the prices to end the shortage of petroleum products recently experienced in Nepali market by paying off dues to the Indian Oil Corporation. Even after bring in force the new price format, the state oil monopoly will be incurring a monthly loss of Rs 860 million, the NOC said, adding that it plans to compensated the loss with government assistance.
Source: http://myrepublica.com January 18, 2012
'Expedite Bharatpur-Hetauda Power Line'
The Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority (CIAA) on Wednesday directed the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation to reach agreement and start construction of the Bharatpur-Hetauda Transmission Line. It also asked the Home and Defense Ministries to take the initiative to complete the stalled Khimti-Dhalkebar project.
Construction of 70-km 220 KV Bharatpur-Hetauda Transmission Line has not started even four years after the World Bank agreed to provide a project loan, for lack of clearance from the Ministry of Forests. The anti-graft body has given a deadline of 15 days for the two ministries to reach agreement. “The Ministry of Energy had written to the Ministry of Forests four years ago for clearance to cut the trees that need to be cut, but have yet to receive the clearance,” Energy Secretary Balananda Paudel said. The World Bank has agreed to funding of US$ 19 million for the project and the government has been forced to pay a commitment charge as the work has not yet started. The World Bank has twice extended the period for utilisation of the fund and the latest extension is to expire in December. “We are already late and the best we can hope is to start the work on a war footing and seek another extension of around six months to complete the project,” Paudel added. Similarly, the CIAA has asked the Home and Defense Ministries to provide security for completion of the 75-km Khimti-Dhalkebar Transmission Line. “We have completed all the work and need to put in just six more pillars, but a few locals have obstructed work in Sindhuli Bazar, saying they will not allow the high-tension transmission line to go through their vicinity,” Puadel disclosed. He said the 220 KV Khimti-Dhalkebar line can be brought into use immediately if the six pillars are built, and Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) is losing around 8-10 MW of power from the Khimti and Bhotekoshi projects in technical loss as it has to use longer transmission lines for lack of the Khimti-Dhalkebar line.
The NEA board on Tuesday decided to seek clarifications from staff, including the respective department chiefs and general managers, for leakage of over 60 percent from the feeders. Some 20 feeders across the country have been leaking over 60 percent, with some in Saptari and Siraha districts having leakages of upto 85 percent. NEA is already enforcing additional hours of load-shedding on feeders having leakage of over 40 percent, and this has been helpful in controlling leakage, according to Paudel. But since additional power cuts have not been enforced on all the leaking feeders, the board has decided to suspend staff who don´t enforce extra load-shedding on feeders having leakage of above 40 percent.
Source: http://myrepublica.com January 12, 2012
One Company behind U.S.'S Top Three Biggest Greenhouse Gas Emitters
By Jeremy Hance
The Atlanta-based Southern Company owns the top three biggest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. according to recent data released by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Three of Southern's coal-fired plants two in Georgia and one in Alabama account for around 64.74 million metric tons of total greenhouse gas emissions, higher than all of Finland's carbon emission in 2008.
The EPA's report listed the top 100 "big emissions sources" in U.S., 96 of which were power plants. The top 20 were largely made up of coal plants. Another company, American Electric Power, also owned three coal-fired plants in the top 20. For its part, Southern Company told the Atlanta Journal-Constitution that their emissions are "indicative" of their power plants "being among the nation's largest generators of electricity," adding that, "Southern Company complies with all environmental regulations and supports transparency in emissions reporting. The company is a leader in environmental research, development and implementation." Southern company serves around 4 million people. In 2014 the corporation is opening a new coal plant in Mississippi that will reportedly capture 60 percent of its greenhouse gas emissions. According to its records Southern Company spent over $8 million in lobbying the U.S. government last year. A profile of the company on OpenSecrets.org, run by nonpartisan Center for Responsive Politics, reads "Southern has been one of the biggest proponents for electricity deregulation" and "gives most of its money to Republicans." Not only is burning coal one of the most significant inputs of global greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, it also has major impacts on human health and on water and land pollution. A recent study found that the hidden environmental and health costs of coal on U.S. society reached $523 billion annually that's $1,698 per person in the U.S. every year. "This is not borne by the coal industry, this is borne by us, in our taxes," the late Paul Epstein, the study's lead author who died last year, told Reuters at the time. "The public cost is far greater than the cost of the coal itself. The impacts of this industry go way beyond just lighting our lights."
Source: http://news.mongabay.com January 16, 2012
Atmospheric Particles Causing More Rain
A rise in the atmosphere of aerosols miniscule particles which include soot, dust and sulphates has led to more rainfall in certain parts of the world and could provide vital clues for future climate predictions, a scientific study shows.
A deeper understanding of rainfall patterns would aid scientists' ability to predict changing trends in the climate. Aerosols can be produced from burning coal or gas, industrial and agricultural processes or by the burning of forests. As well as being harmful for human health, they are blamed for causing air pollution such as smog and smoke. "For a range of conditions, increases in aerosol abundance are associated with the local intensification of rain rates," said the study published in Nature Geoscience by scientists from Israel's Weizmann Institute, NASA, and other institutions. "The relationship is apparent over both the ocean and land, and in the tropics, sub-tropics and mid-latitudes," it added, which would include large parts of continents such as Africa, South America and Asia. The scientists said further work was needed on how aerosols influence regions with lower rainfall rates. A separate study last November also found that aerosols increase the frequency of rainfall. It is thought that large volcanic eruptions, which release sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere, have led to increased rainfall. Another uncertainty in future climate prediction is over the role of aerosols in cloud formation. It is thought clouds can be changed by aerosol particles which act as seeds in cloud droplet and ice formation, influencing the way clouds are formed. Heavier cloud formation could cool the earth's surface temperature by reflecting light back into space.
Source: http://www.enn.com January 16, 2012
China Sets Historic Limits on GHG Emissions from Select Regions
By David A Gabel
China is starting to get on board with the international push to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Last week, China's authoritarian government ordered five cities and two provinces to institute limits on GHG emissions. These areas will now have to submit proposals to the national government's National Development and Reform Commission on how they plan to achieve it.
The first implementation plan has been drawn up by Guandong Province, China's largest GHG emitting province and was approved. Guandong, has committed to decrease its consumption of fossil fuels to only 80 percent of overall energy consumption. The other 20 percent will have to come from either renewable sources, nuclear, or hydroelectric. In so doing, Guandong will be cutting carbon dioxide produced per unit of economic growth, known as carbon intensity, by 19.5 percent. It must accomplish this by 2015. Other cities and provinces ordered to institute similar plans include the major cities of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, and Shenzhen. Along with Guangdong, the province of Hubei is also included. To come up with these ambitious plans, the cities and provinces must set aside a fund dedicated to the project, according to the national directive. China, with a population over three times larger than the United States, has surpassed the US to become world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Their economic and industrial rise can be largely reliant on the increasing number of coal power plants constructed. The burning of dirty fossil fuels is required to fuel the nation's massive industrial infrastructure. This may be a reason why China has decided to use carbon intensity as its primary measurement rather than overall carbon emissions. The nation is striving for continuous growth and does not want to be hampered by hard carbon limits. Nonetheless, China as a whole has committed to significant reductions in carbon intensity. It aims to bring carbon intensity down 40-45 percent by 2020 from 2005 levels. During the 2011-2015 period, it aims to reduce carbon intensity by 17 percent. Tools to achieve this include the top-down national directive to select cities and provinces. China is also looking to establish market mechanisms to reach the target, supposedly a cap and trade-like system. Other regions are independently trying to set up their own GHG reducing regimes. These include the coal-rich province of Shaanxi and the port city of Dalian. Overall, there are over 100 entities following along with similar purpose. Correlations within the US may include California's increasingly stringent standards for air pollution set by the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Also, the northeastern states have allied to create the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, a group dedicated to cutting GHG emissions from the power sector by ten percent by 2018.
Source: http://www.enn.com January 18, 2012
NASA GISS Identifies 14 Air Pollution Control Measures to Slow Global Warming
By Andrew Burger
Fourteen air pollution control measures, if implemented today, could not only slow the pace of global warming, according to an intensive study by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), but also improve health and boost agricultural productivity. All regions of the world would benefit as a result, NASA found, but the biggest health and agricultural gains would be realized in Asia and the Middle East as a result of greenhouse (GHG) emissions reductions.
The GHG pollution measures center on methods of reducing emissions of methane (CH4) and black carbon particulates (soot). While increasing volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted into our atmosphere is the primary agent of the greenhouse effect and the long-term global warming trend, the NASA GISS research team found that reducing emissions of methane and black carbon "are complementary actions that would have a more immediate impact because these two pollutants circulate out of the atmosphere more quickly," according to a project summary on NASA GISS' website that comes with several, unique interactive explanatory features. "Protecting public health and food supplies may take precedence over avoiding climate change in most countries, but knowing that these measures also mitigate climate change may help motivate policies to put them into practice," NASA GISS research team leader Drew Shindell stated. "The scientific case for fast action on these so-called 'short-lived climate forcers' has been steadily built over more than a decade, and this study provides further focused and compelling analysis of the likely benefits at the national and regional level," added United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) executive director Achim Steiner.
Source: http://www.enn.com January 18, 2012
Climate Change Ripples Through Mountain Ecosystems
By Joseph Castro
Like dominoes given one nudge, climate change in the form of reduced winter snowfall on mountaintops has subtle but powerful cascading effects felt throughout entire ecosystems, a new study finds.
In the northern mountains of Arizona, elk spend their winters in lower elevations where there’s much less snow and the cold is less pronounced. But the decrease in high-elevation snowfall in the mountains over the last 25 years has allowed elk to forage in these areas throughout winter. Researchers found that the elks' year-round high-elevation browsing has decimated the density of seasonal woodsy plants, which, in turn, has impacted the populations of songbirds (animals you might expect would actually benefit from less snow). By preventing elk from entering several study sites for six years, the researchers were able to reverse the multi-decadal decline in plant and bird populations in these locations. "Ecologic communities are pretty complex. There are all these tight interactions going on," said study co-author Tom Martin, a wildlife researcher with the U.S. Geological Survey. "Perturbation from climate can affect those communities in many indirect ways and cause all of these ramifying effects."
The densities of seasonal woodsy plants, including aspen and maple trees, in the northern Arizona mountains have steadily declined over the last two decades. Martin and his colleague John Maron, a biologist at the University of Montana, hypothesized that this decline is primarily the result of one of two things: decreased soil water or increased exposure to hungry elk. To find out, the researchers set up 25-acre enclosures around three drainages, or vegetation-rich valleys created by snowmelt. By keeping the elk out, the enclosures essentially mimicked the effects of large snowfall. The researchers found that plant populations in the enclosures rebounded to levels last seen in 1996 — suppressing winter-browsing elk for six years effectively reversed 15 years of plant-density decline. Plant populations in nearby open drainages, however, did not improve over the six years. Similarly, the populations of five key songbird species rebounded in enclosed drainages. "With more vegetation, there are more nesting areas, and it becomes harder for predators to find the nests," Martin told Livescience. Since the populations of elk have also strongly declined over the last 11 years, the results show that the elks' new tendency to stick around over winter is ravaging the plant and bird communities. "It doesn't take very many animals to have a pretty large impact if they’re there year-round," Martin explained.
Eric Post, a biologist at Pennsylvania State University who was not involved with the research, said that the study demonstrates how observational and experimental research can compliment each other. "Both are necessary to study climate change ecology," Post told LiveScience. While impressed with the study, Post thinks that the researchers "didn't nail down the driving factor in the relationship between plant growth and bird abundance." It seems convincing that the architecture of the vegetation would provide the birds with more nesting opportunities, he said, but that theory doesn't take into account the effect of invertebrate (animals without a backbone) abundance. The winter elk may also be affecting the populations of local insects, which the birds eat. Still, Post believes that the study has important implications for conservation. "If you are interested in the conservation of birds, you need to look at more than just the birds and the vegetation they are dependent on," Post said. "You need to look at the broader system of browsing animals." Martin agrees, adding that by "recognizing that these things happen, we can target priority habitats for conservation."
Source: http://green.yahoo.com January 17, 2012
Slow Global Warming by Cutting Soot, Methane
By Rosanne Skirble
An international team of scientists says global warming can be slowed in the short term by focusing less on carbon dioxide and more on the emission of methane and soot.
Carbon dioxide emissions produced by burning fossil fuels are the major cause of global warming, so efforts to combat climate change have focused on ways to cut CO2 releases. But according to the new study published this week in the journal Science, a quicker and more effective strategy would be to reduce emissions of other, shorter-lived air pollutants. The measures would not just slow climate change, but also boost crop yields, save money, and save lives. Once CO2 is released into the atmosphere, it remains there for decades, while other global-warming pollutants such as methane and black carbon, or soot, do not. Soot is a byproduct of inefficient burning, a big problem in developing countries with cook stoves using wood, dung or coal. Soot stays in the air for only a few days. Methane, a gas released from landfills, farms, mines and natural gas wells, stays in the atmosphere for about a decade. Researchers analyzed 2,000 existing pollution control measures for the two pollutants to determine which would be most effective in both slowing global warming and cleaning up the air. Drew Shindell, a climate scientist with NASA, the U.S. space agency, led the analysis. In an interview with the journal Science, he pointed to the control measures that ranked at the top of the list.
For methane, he said, that means “… capturing leaks from pipelines and storage tanks, capturing instead of either releasing or flaring off methane that is produced naturally in coal mining, and in oil and gas production, and capturing methane from city landfills. Measures to reduce black carbon, also known as BC, focused largely on controlling soot emissions from diesel engines and switching to cleaner burning cook stoves. “So regions where you are reducing BC [black carbon], where the sources are especially large in Asia, especially south Asia and also parts of Africa, those regions would tend to see the greatest benefits in both local reduction of warming and in public health,” Shindell said. Adopting such controls could avoid between 700,000 and 4.7 million premature deaths, the study estimates, and save one-third of a million lives in India and China alone. Shindell said the measures are cost effective. For example, profits from captured methane from a mining operation or landfill could boost the economy and protect public health. “Typically the benefits [come from] reduced damage to agriculture and to health," he said. "And if you value the climate benefits as well, these more than offset the cost. If you invest $50 million and get $70 million back, we think it’s a great idea.” Control measures would also increase the annual yields of major crops by as much as 135 million metric tons. And Shindell said other effects would begin immediately. “So for something like black carbon, one of the things that it will do is disrupt the hydrologic cycle," he said. "So as soon as you stop emitting it, the same week, the atmosphere responds and you would have a educed disruption of rainfall patterns, staring virtually immediately.”
Under the methane and black carbon reduction scenario, the study predicts fewer droughts in southern Europe and parts of Africa, and less severe monsoons in Asia. And implementing this strategy could shave a half degree off the expected 1.2 degree Celsius rise in global mean temperature now expected over the next four decades. Shindell says that while carbon dioxide emissions must be addressed in the long-term, these short-term measures that impact both climate change and public health are worth taking now.
Source: http://www.voanews.com January 13, 2012
|Link of the Week|
Climate change may make lizards smarter, if they don't go extinct first
|Did you Know ?|
One improved stove emits 1.8 ton less carbon dioxide annually as compared to the general stoves.
|Media and Event Watch|
Every Monday 8:30 pm on Nepal FM 91.8 MHZ “Climate Change Mero Bhawisya Mero Chaso”
Every Sunday at 7:30 am on Radio Sagarmatha 102.4 MHz "Batabaran Dabali"
Every Monday at 5:30 pm (re-telecast every Tuesday 11 am) on ABC Television “Climate Change
Every Alternate Friday at 2 PM on ENPHO Hall – “Green Discussion” Organized by Clean Energy Nepal, Nepalese Youth for Climate Action anGrnd Green Youth Network
Every Friday on The Himalayan Times “THT Green Plus”
Environment Cycle Radio F.M.104.2Mhz (ECR FM)
|QUIZ of the Week # 505|
As per the Climate Change Policy 2011 and National Adaptation Programme of Action 2010, ……………………… per cent of the total funds need to be spent on local level activities.
While sending your answer please mention “Quiz of the week#” in the subject line and please send your answer in firstname.lastname@example.org
One lucky winner will get a T-shirt with an Environmental Message from Clean Energy Nepal.
|Answer of the week # 504|
Financial Act 2002-2003 decided to collect pollution tax of ……………… from a unit of petroleum products sold in the Kathmandu Valley and provide it to EPF, but the provision has not been implemented. MoE data shows around Rs 690 million have been collected till now.
a) 50 paisa
Indra Kumari Manandhar
Rajan Parajuli is the lucky winner for this week. Please contact the CEN office within a week with your identity card.
Congratulation to the Winner and thanks to all participants.
Prepared by: Suman Udas and Pabitra Basnet
Edited by: Bhushan Tuladhar
To contribute articles, news items, or event announcements for the next issue, send an email with the complete details and URL source to email@example.com and to view the archives of ce-news http://cen.org.np/ce-news
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